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Truth about male infertility

Advanced Urology Infertility

Truth about male infertility

Infertility problems are no longer a rare phenomenon and reports suggest that out of 10 couples, 2 are suffering from problems with conceiving. It was not very long back that infertility was considered as a female factor; however, the recent developments show that in over 20% of the total cases of infertility, the problem is with the sperm and not the egg.

We all know that it takes an egg and a sperm to meet and create a baby. The failure of any of them can cause infertility. The recent development suggests that in most of the cases, it is the male sperm that is the root cause of the problem. Here are some details that you need to know about male infertility.

What causes male infertility?

There are various factors responsible for male infertility, including physical, hormonal, genetic, or immunologic problems. It can also be a result of some long-time chronic illness or a sexual condition that hinders the natural flow and disposal of semen in the vagina.

Sperm production is widely affected by chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and more. In fact, smoking and drinking a large amount of alcohol is a leading reason for male infertility in modern times.

Semen analysis

Semen analysis is a test that is used to diagnose the male infertility condition. It is a comprehensive test that analyses a range of factors including the number of sperm, the quantity of ejaculate, percentage of moving sperm, shape of individual sperm and more. The test is focused on assessing the amount of moving and living sperm, also known as total motile count, in an ejaculate sample.

Advance testing

While semen analysis is a very efficient tool to find the possible causes of male infertility, there are other advanced tests that must be performed. In case the brain does not signal the testes to make sperm, the body will have low production. This is a condition where hormones play a significant role. The advanced tests focus on measuring these hormones and finding out the possible cause.

Treatment for male infertility

The treatment that you get for your male infertility condition depends upon the count of your sperm. From “intrauterine insemination” or “IUI” to in vitro fertilization, the doctors may recommend the best treatment option based on your condition. Often, mild infertility is treated through medication or hormone therapy. In case the reason for infertility lies with some physical condition, the doctors also suggest surgery as a possible treatment option.

Male infertility cases are at a rise and there are plenty of reasons that contribute to it. It is best to contact a doctor as soon as the problem is experienced and seek treatment instantly. Any inhibition about opening up about the condition can cause a severe problem and hinder the chances to avail the best treatment.

Advanced Urology Kidney Diseases

Natural Remedies for Kidney Stone & Doctor’s Advice

Kidney stones are also known as renal calculi and are sturdy rock-like structures made of crystals. Usually, kidney stones are found in the kidneys but they can also occur in any part of the urinary tract such as kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. There are different types of kidney stones depending upon their formation. The key crystals that form kidney stones are Calcium, Uric, Struvite, and Cystine. A kidney stone is one of the most painful condition and immediate doctor consultation is advised. However, kidney stones can also be treated with natural ways. Let us are some natural remedies for kidney stones.

Natural remedies for kidney stones

  • Water: One of the best ways to avoid and treat kidney stones is by drinking plenty of liquids. You must drink at least 12 glasses of water and other liquids in a day. The excess liquid supply will cut the stones and help it pass through the body.
  • Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple Cider Vinegar is high in acetic acid which is able to cut kidney stones. It is also helpful in easing down the pain. A combination of Apple Cider Vinegar, water and lemon juice is very effective.
  • Wheatgrass juice: Wheatgrass juice offers a good supply of nutrients and is also an influencer of urine. When you urinate more, you have higher chances to pass out the kidney stones.
  • Pomegranate juice: Pomegranate is known to improve kidney function as it is responsible to flush out toxins from the body. A glass of pomegranate juice will help you eliminate kidney stones as well.
  • Basil Juice: The acetic acid content of basil is very high. It helps in breaking down the kidney stone and making it easy to pass through the urinary tract.

What do doctors advise for kidney stones?

The doctors explain that the treatment for kidney stones depends upon the type of deposits. It can vary anything from simple medications to surgery. While natural remedies must be tried, the doctors advise some more precautions including:

  • Reduce the amount of salt and sugar in your diet.
  • Reduce consumption of red meat and eat the right food.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Maintain healthy blood pressure.
  • Ensure your blood sugar levels are in control.
  • Maintain a healthy weight and do not become overweight/obese.
  • Any pain killers and any type of over the counter medications.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Get the kidney check-up done regularly.

The doctor would assess your condition and offer you the best treatment option. In severe cases, kidney stone surgery is advised which must be performed by an expert surgeon only. If you are dealing with kidney stones, do not ignore the symptoms and consult with a reliable kidney stone surgeon or urologist right away.

Advanced Urology

Erectile Dysfunction in Men – Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Erectile Dysfunction is a medical condition in which the male fails to maintain an erection firm enough to do sexual intercourse successfully. Erectile Dysfunction, also known as ED is a common problem and can happen due to several factors. While occasional ED is often encountered by men of all ages and is not of great concern, frequent ED must be reported to an expert and treatment should be sought. There can be underlying health problems that can cause erectile dysfunction. A person dealing with ED has to undergo a lot of emotional and mental trauma and hence medically should be sought as soon as possible.

Common causes of erectile dysfunction

Erection is a complete process and any problem with one of its states can cause erectile dysfunction. The penis erects when the blood flow increases in its vein. The reasons behind the increased blood flow can be physical touch, sensual touts, or participation in any other sensual activity.

A sexually aroused man’s penis muscles start relaxing which gives way to the blood to enter the artilleries which further fill the two chambers of the penis. These two chambers, when fully filled, cause the complete erection. Upon ejaculation, the muscles start contracting again and the blood starts flowing backward leaving the penis in a normal state.

A number of reasons can hamper this process, including:

  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • hypertension
  • high cholesterol level
  • obesity
  • low testosterone levels
  • hormone imbalances
  • kidney disease
  • aging
  • stress
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • relationship problems
  • prescription medications
  • sleep disorders
  • drugs
  • alcohol
  • tobacco products
  • health conditions like Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • injury to the pelvic area
  • Previous surgery
  • Peyronie’s disease

One or a combination of many above stated reasons can be the cause of erectile dysfunction in a man.

Diagnosis of erectile dysfunction

Diagnosing ED involves a lot of steps and methods depending upon your sexual history and health condition. Some of the common methods used are:

Physical examination

The doctor would perform a physical examination to identify the problem. The doctor would check the heartbeat, lungs movement, as well as check your testicles and penis. A thorough prostate test would also be performed to check the internal functions.

Psychosocial history

The doctor would also ask you several personal questions revolving around your sexual history. The doctor would ask your frequency of sexual intercourse as well as how long have you been experiencing such a problem.

Misc. tests

In addition to the above, the doctor would also recommend you to undergo a few tests including ultrasound, Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test, Injection test, Urine tests, and Blood tests.

Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

At RG Stone Urology and Laparoscopy Hospital, we offer you a range of treatment options for Erectile Dysfunction. Depending upon the cause behind ED, the experts would offer you the right treatments including:


The doctor would suggest medicines to control the symptoms of ED. Some of the common medicines prescribed by the experts include:

  • avanafil (Stendra)
  • sildenafil (Viagra)
  • tadalafil (Cialis)
  • vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn)

Talk Therapy

Many times, the reasons behind the ED can be psychological and can be treated effectively by talking to a specialist. These reasons include stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression.

Vacuum pumps

At RG hospital, we offer you complete assistance and a reliable solution for your ED problem. You can confide in our expert doctors and let them diagnose the reasons for ED and offer you the best treatment.

Advanced Urology Infertility Minimal Invasive Surgery

Symptoms of infertility in men and women

What is infertility?

This is a condition whereby someone is not being able to get pregnant, despite the fact that you try to get pregnant by having unprotected sex for about a year or above. In the United States alone, there is about 10 to 15 percent of infertile couples. The case of infertility may arise from your partner, yourself, or both parties involved. There is absolutely nothing to worry about as there are proven therapies that can improve your chances of getting pregnant, all you have to do is to get a reliable and professional healthcare provider and get your problem solved.


The only symptom of infertility is not able to get pregnant. Some obvious symptoms may not occur. Most times, in women, they will experience menstrual pains and irregular monthly periods. A man with infertility condition will experience hormonal problems like sexual function, change in the growth of hair.

When is the right time to see a doctor?

In most cases, you don’t have to see a doctor for not being able to give birth, until you have tried to for at least a year and see no positive result. Women should see a doctor when they are:

  • At the age of 35 and have tried to get pregnant for at least 6 months or more.
  • At the age of 40 and above.
  • Have a painful periods
  • Irregular/ absent periods
  • Have infertility problem
  • Have done cancer treatment before
  • If you had some miscarriages before
  • Diagnosed with pelvic inflammation.

Causes of infertility in men

Some major causes of infertility in men today are:

  • Low sperm production: For a woman to be able to get pregnant, the man must be able to produce quality sperm, the inability of the man to do so will result in infertility. Health problems can affect the quality of sperm that is needed to get a woman pregnant, such as gonorrhea, diabetes, varicocele, etc.
  • A problem in sperm delivery: This can cause infertility when there is a problem delivering the sperm, like early ejaculation, a blockage in the testicles, reproductive organ injury.
  • Certain environmental problems: The kind of environment that men expose themselves to can affect fertility, such as frequent heat exposure can affect sperm production, smoking, marijuana, drinking of alcohol, etc.
  • The danger caused by cancer: Some damages that are incurred in the treatment of cancer such as chemotherapy and radiation can lead to low sperm production.

Causes of infertility in women

Some things that can affect fertility in women are as follows:

  • Disorder in ovulation: This can affect the release of an egg from the ovary.
  • Blockage of the fallopian tube: This is caused by a medical condition known as salpingitis, which is the inflammation of the fallopian tube.
  • Uterine abnormality: This arises from abnormalities with the shape of the uterus, cervix, or polyps.
  • Cancer and treatment: The treatment from cancer can affect fertility in women.
  • Ovarian insufficiency: This is when a woman experiences early menopause before getting to the age of 40.

Diagnosis and treatment
When you are facing this condition just to visit a doctor and make them understand your problem, they will recommend ways to improve your chance of getting pregnant. Treatment of infertility in men and women includes:

  • Medications
  • Surgery
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Retrieval of sperm
  • Ovulation stimulation with fertility drugs
  • Insemination

There are methods that are used medically to treat this condition, make sure you find a trusted and professional doctor to examine you when you have tried to get pregnant in six months and above.

Advanced Urology Prostate Diseases

Enlarged Prostate – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Options

Enlarged Prostate

An enlarged prostate is a condition that affects men where the prostate gland has increased in size. Clinically defined as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), this condition is not cancer; neither does it increase the patient’s chances of developing cancer. While the prostate increases in size as a male grows, it is imperative to note that an older man will have a bigger prostate than that of a younger man. This condition is dangerous for when it comes to urination and the fact that in treating the condition, the man is susceptible to developing problems in their sexual ability. The effects due to this condition are dependent on age, genetics, and the level of anxiety as displayed by the patient.


Multiple factors lead to the development of an enlarged prostate. First is an alteration in the balance of sex hormones. This happens as the man grows older. Thus

  • Aging: Chances of developing an enlarged prostate increases as the man grows older
  • Family history: In case your father had an enlarged prostate the there is a high probability of you also developing the condition
  • Diabetes and heart conditions: These conditions influence the formation of an enlarged prostate owing to the fact that they involve the beta-blockers, thereby increasing the chances of developing an enlarged prostate.
  • Lifestyle: Lifestyle conditions like obesity have the potential to increase the risk of an enlarged prostate. On the other hand, exercise lowers the risk.


There are certain symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate including:

  • A frequent need to urinate
  • The feeling that your bladder is not completely emptied after urination
  • A weak urine stream
  • Problems starting or stopping urination
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Reduced libido
  • Problems maintaining an erection

Treatment Options

Multiple approaches are used in treating an enlarged prostate. Men must have their prostates screened regularly particularly the ones over 40, 45, and 50 years because these ages are the prime time for an enlarged prostate. In treating, multiple options are applicable in efforts to reduce the acuteness of this condition.

Surgical options

This is in the event that medication fails to eliminate the symptoms. These surgical approaches include:

  • The transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): This involves the cutting out of the prostate tissue.
  • There is also the transurethral incision (TUIP) of the prostate: Here, grooves are made or created on the prostate
  • The third is the transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT): this involves the use of microwaves in destroying the excess prostate tissue.
  • The prostatic urethral lift: this involves the movement of the prostate tissue away from the urethra.

Research has revealed that changes in the victim’s lifestyle can influence and get rid of the symptoms that are associated with an enlarged prostate. These include the reduction of the consumption of alcohol, sweeteners, and soda.

Advanced Urology Urinary Problems

Urethral Stricture in Men & Women – Diagnosis & Treatment

The human body has a thin tube named Urethra that carries the urine out of the body from the bladder. In certain cases, this tube gets blocked due to the narrowing of the scar tissues. This obstructs the flow of the urine causing various other complications. The medical condition where scar tissue growth narrows the urethra is known as Urethral Stricture. Some of the common problems associated with Urethral Stricture include the backflow of the urine to the bladder as well as obstruction in urinating. Both conditions are complex and may lead to kidney failure.

What are the common causes of urethral stricture?

The manipulation of the urethra is one of the common reasons for the urethral stricture problem. The complication of the urethra can be a result of prostate brachytherapy, prostatectomy, damage caused by a urethral catheter, or a corrective measure taken for hypospadias.

However, there are certain inflammatory conditions as well that can cause urethral strictures. Such conditions include untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or a medical condition named balanitis xerotica obliterans.

Common symptoms of urethral stricture

Some of the common symptoms of the condition include:

  • Reoccurring Urinary tract infections
  • Increase in urine frequency
  • Bladder control loss
  • Painful urination
  • Swelling in the genitals
  • Long urinating duration
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Feeling full bladder after urinating

Urethral stricture in men and women

Usually, the urethral stricture is a problem experienced by males than females. However, both males and females can have a urethral stricture. Posterior urethral stricture and anterior urethral stricture are two types of urethral stricture found in men. In females, the chances of urethral stricture are limited to 2.7-8 percent only.

How is urethral stricture diagnosed?

When you approach your medical care provider, they will analyse your medical history and read the symptoms to get an idea of the condition. A physical exam will be conducted, which will help the doctors to suggest further diagnostic tests. Some diagnosis tools and tests used for identifying urethral stricture include:

  • Urethroscopy
  • Retrograde urethrogram
  • Imaging studies such as MRI scans, CT scans, and ultrasounds

Treatment for urethral stricture

Again a range of characteristics defines what would be the best treatment for urethral stricture. He doctor would check the cause of the condition, its symptoms, occurrence, and many other aspects. Some of the commonly recommended treatments for urethral stricture include dilation, urethrectomy, and open surgical removal.

  • Dilation: In this procedure, the doctor inserts a special device in the urethra, which works against the narrowing and gradually increases the stricture. It is a minimally invasive method and usually the initial phase of the treatment.
  • Urethrectomy: A special urethroscope is used for guidance, and the stricture is cut off manually using a laser beam.
  • Open surgical removal: Expert doctors surgically remove the stricture. It is an invasive method but shows a great success rate.


Advanced Urology Urinary Problems

Female Urinary Incontinence – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Female urinary incontinence is a medical condition in which females experience involuntary loss of urine. The condition ranges from mild to severe, wherein women either lose a few drops of urine while coughing or sneezing or may have a strong sudden urge to urinate, which is often uncontrollable. In certain women, both types of incontinence are observed. Incontinence causes great public discomfort as the notion of urinating in public is often embarrassing. Moreover, it can also happen while you are having sexual intercourse, which makes the condition even worse.

What are the different types of Female Urinary Incontinence?

Female Urinary Incontinence is primarily of 7 types and affects women of different ages and physical conditions. This includes:

  • Stress incontinence: Stress caused because of any physical activity such as coughing, sneezing, or exercising causes incontinence.
  • Urge incontinence: This is a condition when an urge to urinate is uncontrollable. Such women lose a large amount of urine, including during sleep.
  • Overactive bladder incontinence: Frequent urge topee or urge to urinate.
  • Functional incontinence: Several reasons such as physical disability, internal obstacle, and more contribute towards untimely urination.
  • Overflow incontinence: Full bladder results in leakage of small amounts of urine.
  • Mixed incontinence: A combination of stress and urge incontinence
  • Transient incontinence: A temporary problem with urination that passes out with time.

What are the common symptoms of female urinary incontinence?

The symptoms of different types of incontinence are different; however, in each case, one or other cause makes you lose urine involuntarily. The symptoms may range from the loss of a small amount of urine to large quantities.

What are the causes of female urinary incontinence?

Female Urinary Incontinence cannot be treated as a disease. It is but a condition that may be permanent or temporary. It is mostly a side-effect of any underlying physical or medical problem.

Causes of temporary incontinence

There are certain food and beverages that act as diuretics. These include:

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Sparkling water
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Chocolate
  • Chili peppers
  • Spicy, Sugary or acidy food
  • Heart and blood pressure medications, sedatives, and muscle relaxants
  • Large doses of vitamin C

Besides this, Urinary Tract Infection, as well as constipation, can also result in Female Urinary Incontinence.

Persistent urinary incontinence

These are often an outcome of an underlying medical or physical conditions. Such conditions comprise of Pregnancy, Childbirth, Changes with age, menopause, hysterectomy, obstruction, or neurological disorders.

How is female urinary incontinence diagnosed?

The doctors determine the type of incontinence with your symptoms. They will also examine your medical history as well as recommend some physical tests. The common diagnostic tests used are:

  • Urinalysis: A urine test is performed to check for any infection, traces of blood, and other abnormalities.
  • Bladder Diary: A log is maintained about the amount of water you drink, the amount of urine you pass, when you urinate, urge that you feel, and the incontinence episode that occurs in between.
  • Post-void Residual Treatment: This is a detailed test in which the patient is asked to urinate in a container. The amount of leftover urine in the bladder is checked by the doctor using a catheter or an ultrasound test.

What is the treatment of female urinary incontinence?

The doctors will advise you on the best decision as per your condition and symptoms. Commonly recommended treatment options for female urinary incontinence include:

  • Behavioral techniques
  • Medication
  • Medical devices
  • Interventional therapies
  • Surgery

Expert doctors suggest surgery as a reliable treatment for incontinence that is persistent and severe in nature. We are the best hospital to approach for female urinary incontinence. Our expert doctors have performed several successful surgeries. If you are dealing with an incontinence problem, connect with us.

Advanced Urology Kidney Diseases

Types of Kidney Stone Surgeries

Kidney stones are deposits of minerals or uric acid in the kidney that become rock solid over the period of time. These stones can be of different sizes, and some may become very large. The stones can cause a range of problems, including pain and kidney dysfunction. While small kidney stones can easily pass out of the body, the large-sized stones are often the problematic ones. To remove these large-sized kidney stones, doctors recommend surgical procedures.

Some of the common conditions when the doctors suggest kidney stone surgery include:

  • The large-sized stone that cannot pass on its own.
  • Acute pain
  • The stone causes blockage of urine from the bladder
  • The stone causes urinary tract infections

Different types of kidney stone surgeries

There are various surgical procedures aimed at treating kidney stones. The four popular surgical treatments for kidney stones include:

  • Shock wave lithotripsy
  • Ureteroscopy
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy
  • Open surgery
  • Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)

One of the popularly recommended kidney stone treatment is Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). The treatment is effective when the patients have small to medium-sized stones. It is a non-invasive treatment and performed under general anesthesia. High energy shockwaves (ultrasound or X-rays) are aimed at the kidney from the outside. The shockwaves burst the stones into several small pieces and these pieces pass out with the urine. In certain cases, the doctor might place a stent into the ureter to make more passage. The treatment has a great success rate and is rated as one of the most efficient options.


Ureteroscopy is an effective treatment for kidney and ureter stones. The stones are removed using a thin and flexible scope. The patient is under the influence of general anesthesia while the scope is passed through the ureter to the kidney. The stones are taken out one after another. In case there is a larger stone, the doctor would use the Shock Wave Lithotripsy treatment first to break the large stone into smaller pieces. It is a versatile treatment option which is successful in most of the cases. However, sometimes, it may give rise to infections or bleeding.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy

In case the patient has large stones that are tough to break, the doctors use Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy as a surgical procedure. In this procedure, the doctor uses a high-frequency sound wave to burst the stone into small pieces. A small scope is inserted in your body through a small incision made on the back or side of your body. This surgical procedure takes 20-45 minutes for the complete removal of stones. The stones are either removed through a tube or a shock wave is used to burst them and then the pieces are vacuumed out of the body. The treatment is primarily for large and medium-sized complex stones. It is a successful procedure as it clears the kidney stones, no matter how many in numbers, in one go.

Open Surgery:

Once a popular procedure, open surgery for kidney stones is not much recommended nowadays. However, in certain cases, doctors may recommend open surgery depending upon various factors. Most of the time open surgery is recommended in case there are large stones stuck in your ureter or the patient is in a lot of pain. However, the best kidney stone hospitals are now well-equipped to perform such operation with minimally invasive methods. The use of open surgery has become limited and is recommended only if the patient has bleeding, infection, or the flow of urine is obstructed completely. The patient is given anesthesia to stay unconscious while the doctors perform the procedure. The doctor uses specialized equipment to perform the surgery.


Advanced Urology Prostate Diseases

Prostate Cancer – Treatment Options

With changing lifestyle preferences, Prostate cancer has become one of the common problems reported in males. In case you have discomfort in your groin area, swelling, or pain while urinating, you might have Prostate cancer. It is advised to see a doctor as soon as possible. If you are diagnosed positive for prostate cancer, you will be guided for the various treatment options available for the condition.

While the doctor would guide you the best, it is important to have knowledge about the treatment options available to you. In this article, we have discussed all the possible treatments for prostate cancer. The doctor might recommend any one of these or advise a combination. The selection depends upon a range of factors including the stage of cancer, your health condition, medical history, and more.

Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Radiation therapy uses photons to kill cancerous cells. The ionizing radiation is targeted on the cancerous cells for killing their DNAs. Once coming in contact with the radiation, the cancer cells die without multiplying or regenerating. The treatment is appropriate when prostate cancer is local. It is as effective as surgery and offers great results. You will have to connect with a radiation oncologist who will arrange your radiotherapy sessions. There are two types of radiotherapy:

  • External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): EBRT is commonly used radiotherapy to treat prostate cancer. The radiologist, with the help of mapping, identifies the location of the cancer cells and target them specifically.
  • Brachytherapy: In this therapy, the experts implant radiation seeds inside the prostate. These seeds emit radiation internally, killing the cancerous cells.

Surgery for prostate cancer

In case, cancer has not spread, doctors suggest removing the prostate gland through surgery. The procedure is called radical prostatectomy. However, in case, cancer has spread and formed a more advanced stage, the doctors work on the removal of the lymph nodes.

Open radical prostatectomy is the conventional way of operating the prostate gland and removing it. However, nowadays laparoscopic prostatectomy has become more popular. Irrespective of the type, a prostatectomy is a critical procedure, followed by a tough healing process. Surgery is often combined with other treatments such as Hormone therapy and Radiation therapy. The doctors might also recommend chemotherapy once the surgical wound is completely healed.

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

It is believed that testosterone is one of the fuelling elements for the development of prostate cancer. Through Hormone therapy for prostate cancer, the doctors focus on minimizing the levels of testosterone in the body. The treatment is also known as androgen deprivation therapy or ADT and is used in a case where metastasis has happened. The therapy works on stopping the production of Testosterone or limits its contact with the prostate.

Chemotherapy for prostate cancer

The primary goal of chemotherapy is to restrict cancer from spreading to other sites. It is a critical procedure with lots of side effects. The oncologists administer medicine to your veins which acts on the cancerous cells. However, the high effects of the medicine can easily be observed by healthy cells as well. The result is a complete body imbalance. The side-effects range from nausea to vomiting, constipation to loose motions, headaches to fatigue, and a lot more. Its prime focus is to improve the quality of life and increase life span.

Immunotherapy for prostate cancer

Cancerous cells are harmful to the body and our immune system is designed to work against them.  However, when a patient has a progressive prostate cancer condition, the immune system can become weak. Immunotherapy works on the immune system of the body and retrains immune cells to respond to the malicious cells.

Some of the common types of immunotherapies include

These are some of the key treatments available for Prostate Cancer. An experienced prostate cancer expert can help you identify the best treatment for your condition and fight with prostate cancer effectively.

Advanced Urology Infertility

Male Infertility – Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Infertility diagnosis is advised to a couple who do not conceive over the period of one year despite having a physical relationship. The problem of infertility has now become very common and is reported in one out of 6 couples. In case it is the male partner responsible for the condition, it is male infertility.

It is a problem of sperm movement and the production of sperm termed as male infertility. Out of all the infertility cases, over 30% of the cases are because of male infertility conditions. Most of the conditions that contribute to male infertility are preventable or treatable. The diagnosis of male fertility is however very complicated. Also, infertility is primarily considered to be associated with women and hence men do not feel concerned about them being infertile. It is important for both men and women to consult a doctor in case couples unable to conceive. However, in the case of a male, it is important to understand male fertility and related facts in detail, before consulting the doctor.

What are the causes of male fertility?

Male infertility can be understood as a problem of sperm movement and the production of sperm. Some of the common reasons for less sperm count or abnormal sperm movement can be:

  • Varicocele: This is a condition wherein a bulge of veins develops above the testicles. 38% of the cases of male infertility are because of this reason. Luckily, it is a controllable factor. A physician can best advise as to when the condition is treatable and when not.
  • Retrograde ejaculation: As the name suggests, in this condition, the sperm is reversely ejaculated into the bladder.
  • Absence of vas deferens, the pipeline that carries sperms.
  • An obstruction in the pipeline between the testicles and the penis.
  • Antibodies act against the sperms and kill them on their way to the egg.

What is the diagnosis of male fertility?

Identifying the causes of male fertility is intimidating and only a qualified physician can help. The physician will advise some tests, which may include:

  • Sperm and semen analysis: A fresh sample of the semen is taken for the test of sperm count. The experts may also examine the sperm for their shape and movement. A higher number of normal sperms indicate that the male is fertile and vice versa. The condition when there are no sperms in the semen is known as azoospermia, which means that there is a plumbing problem and surgery is the treatment.
  • Physical examination: A urologist performs a physical examination to identify varicocele as well as any underlying hormonal problem.
  • Hormonal evaluation: There are many hormones responsible for sperm production and movement such as testosterone. A hormonal test is done but in most cases, it isn’t the cause.
  • Testicular biopsy: In case the sperm count is very low, a testicular biopsy is performed. A needle biopsy is performed to check the production level of sperms.
  • Genetic testing: Through a genetic test, it is identified if the problems are related to genetics.

What are the treatments of male infertility?

Male fertility is treatable in most of the cases and the ultimate goal is to help couples conceive the most common infertility treatments include:

  • In the case of varicocele, it can be treated through surgery to unblock the abnormal veins. In most cases, this is the most common reason and the treatment is effective.
  • In the case of hormonal abnormalities, medicines are effective for treatment.
  • In the case of obstructions, surgery is performed to correct the plumbing.

Lately, many innovative and advanced treatments have come in a light that has helped in a range of male infertility cases. Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ARTs) are very powerful and result-oriented. Although a little expensive, this treatment has shown great results.

In the first step of ARTs, experts collect semen either with the help of a needle directly from the penis or through natural ejaculation. These eggs are then introduced to the eggs in one or many ways. These methods include:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): The sperms are directly injected into the uterus when the ovulation happens. The woman is offered some medication that influences the higher number of egg production.
  • In-vitro fertilization (IVF): In this process, the sperms are fused with multiple eggs that are collected from the woman in a test tube. The eggs that fertilize are placed in the uterus for further process.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A needle is used to inject a single sperm into the egg. As soon as the egg is fertilized, it is transferred and implanted in the uterus. When the sperm count is extremely low, this procedure is performed.

Home remedies for male infertility treatment

There are a number of ways that can be used to increase the sperm count in the best possible way. One of the primary things is to avoid affecting the chances of sperm by avoiding marijuana, tobacco, and more than two alcoholic drinks in a day. Whirlpools and hot baths are also known to affect the chances of having viable sperm.

It is also recommended to avoid taking testosterone or any other androgen drug. Usually, these drugs are consumed for weight training.

How to prevent male infertility?

There isn’t much to be done to prevent male infertility that is caused by genetic disorders. But, there are certain ways to avoid the problem to some extent which includes:

  • Prevention from sexually transmitted diseases
  • No illicit drug usage
  • Avoid exposure to radiation
  • Limited use of alcohol
  • High personal hygiene practices
  • Loose-fitting undergarments

In case you experience the symptoms of male infertility or any discomfort while having sex, and not being able to conceive, you must consult the physician as soon as possible.

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