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Prostate Cancer – Treatment Options

Advanced Urology Prostate Diseases

Prostate Cancer – Treatment Options

With changing lifestyle preferences, Prostate cancer has become one of the common problems reported in males. In case you have discomfort in your groin area, swelling, or pain while urinating, you might have Prostate cancer. It is advised to see a doctor as soon as possible. If you are diagnosed positive for prostate cancer, you will be guided for the various treatment options available for the condition.

While the doctor would guide you the best, it is important to have knowledge about the treatment options available to you. In this article, we have discussed all the possible treatments for prostate cancer. The doctor might recommend any one of these or advise a combination. The selection depends upon a range of factors including the stage of cancer, your health condition, medical history, and more.

Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Radiation therapy uses photons to kill cancerous cells. The ionizing radiation is targeted on the cancerous cells for killing their DNAs. Once coming in contact with the radiation, the cancer cells die without multiplying or regenerating. The treatment is appropriate when prostate cancer is local. It is as effective as surgery and offers great results. You will have to connect with a radiation oncologist who will arrange your radiotherapy sessions. There are two types of radiotherapy:

  • External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT): EBRT is commonly used radiotherapy to treat prostate cancer. The radiologist, with the help of mapping, identifies the location of the cancer cells and target them specifically.
  • Brachytherapy: In this therapy, the experts implant radiation seeds inside the prostate. These seeds emit radiation internally, killing the cancerous cells.

Surgery for prostate cancer

In case, cancer has not spread, doctors suggest removing the prostate gland through surgery. The procedure is called radical prostatectomy. However, in case, cancer has spread and formed a more advanced stage, the doctors work on the removal of the lymph nodes.

Open radical prostatectomy is the conventional way of operating the prostate gland and removing it. However, nowadays laparoscopic prostatectomy has become more popular. Irrespective of the type, a prostatectomy is a critical procedure, followed by a tough healing process. Surgery is often combined with other treatments such as Hormone therapy and Radiation therapy. The doctors might also recommend chemotherapy once the surgical wound is completely healed.

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

It is believed that testosterone is one of the fuelling elements for the development of prostate cancer. Through Hormone therapy for prostate cancer, the doctors focus on minimizing the levels of testosterone in the body. The treatment is also known as androgen deprivation therapy or ADT and is used in a case where metastasis has happened. The therapy works on stopping the production of Testosterone or limits its contact with the prostate.

Chemotherapy for prostate cancer

The primary goal of chemotherapy is to restrict cancer from spreading to other sites. It is a critical procedure with lots of side effects. The oncologists administer medicine to your veins which acts on the cancerous cells. However, the high effects of the medicine can easily be observed by healthy cells as well. The result is a complete body imbalance. The side-effects range from nausea to vomiting, constipation to loose motions, headaches to fatigue, and a lot more. Its prime focus is to improve the quality of life and increase life span.

Immunotherapy for prostate cancer

Cancerous cells are harmful to the body and our immune system is designed to work against them.  However, when a patient has a progressive prostate cancer condition, the immune system can become weak. Immunotherapy works on the immune system of the body and retrains immune cells to respond to the malicious cells.

Some of the common types of immunotherapies include

These are some of the key treatments available for Prostate Cancer. An experienced prostate cancer expert can help you identify the best treatment for your condition and fight with prostate cancer effectively.

Advanced Urology Infertility

Male Infertility – Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Infertility diagnosis is advised to a couple who do not conceive over the period of one year despite having a physical relationship. The problem of infertility has now become very common and is reported in one out of 6 couples. In case it is the male partner responsible for the condition, it is male infertility.

It is a problem of sperm movement and the production of sperm termed as male infertility. Out of all the infertility cases, over 30% of the cases are because of male infertility conditions. Most of the conditions that contribute to male infertility are preventable or treatable. The diagnosis of male fertility is however very complicated. Also, infertility is primarily considered to be associated with women and hence men do not feel concerned about them being infertile. It is important for both men and women to consult a doctor in case couples unable to conceive. However, in the case of a male, it is important to understand male fertility and related facts in detail, before consulting the doctor.

What are the causes of male fertility?

Male infertility can be understood as a problem of sperm movement and the production of sperm. Some of the common reasons for less sperm count or abnormal sperm movement can be:

  • Varicocele: This is a condition wherein a bulge of veins develops above the testicles. 38% of the cases of male infertility are because of this reason. Luckily, it is a controllable factor. A physician can best advise as to when the condition is treatable and when not.
  • Retrograde ejaculation: As the name suggests, in this condition, the sperm is reversely ejaculated into the bladder.
  • Absence of vas deferens, the pipeline that carries sperms.
  • An obstruction in the pipeline between the testicles and the penis.
  • Antibodies act against the sperms and kill them on their way to the egg.

What is the diagnosis of male fertility?

Identifying the causes of male fertility is intimidating and only a qualified physician can help. The physician will advise some tests, which may include:

  • Sperm and semen analysis: A fresh sample of the semen is taken for the test of sperm count. The experts may also examine the sperm for their shape and movement. A higher number of normal sperms indicate that the male is fertile and vice versa. The condition when there are no sperms in the semen is known as azoospermia, which means that there is a plumbing problem and surgery is the treatment.
  • Physical examination: A urologist performs a physical examination to identify varicocele as well as any underlying hormonal problem.
  • Hormonal evaluation: There are many hormones responsible for sperm production and movement such as testosterone. A hormonal test is done but in most cases, it isn’t the cause.
  • Testicular biopsy: In case the sperm count is very low, a testicular biopsy is performed. A needle biopsy is performed to check the production level of sperms.
  • Genetic testing: Through a genetic test, it is identified if the problems are related to genetics.

What are the treatments of male infertility?

Male fertility is treatable in most of the cases and the ultimate goal is to help couples conceive the most common infertility treatments include:

  • In the case of varicocele, it can be treated through surgery to unblock the abnormal veins. In most cases, this is the most common reason and the treatment is effective.
  • In the case of hormonal abnormalities, medicines are effective for treatment.
  • In the case of obstructions, surgery is performed to correct the plumbing.

Lately, many innovative and advanced treatments have come in a light that has helped in a range of male infertility cases. Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ARTs) are very powerful and result-oriented. Although a little expensive, this treatment has shown great results.

In the first step of ARTs, experts collect semen either with the help of a needle directly from the penis or through natural ejaculation. These eggs are then introduced to the eggs in one or many ways. These methods include:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): The sperms are directly injected into the uterus when the ovulation happens. The woman is offered some medication that influences the higher number of egg production.
  • In-vitro fertilization (IVF): In this process, the sperms are fused with multiple eggs that are collected from the woman in a test tube. The eggs that fertilize are placed in the uterus for further process.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A needle is used to inject a single sperm into the egg. As soon as the egg is fertilized, it is transferred and implanted in the uterus. When the sperm count is extremely low, this procedure is performed.

Home remedies for male infertility treatment

There are a number of ways that can be used to increase the sperm count in the best possible way. One of the primary things is to avoid affecting the chances of sperm by avoiding marijuana, tobacco, and more than two alcoholic drinks in a day. Whirlpools and hot baths are also known to affect the chances of having viable sperm.

It is also recommended to avoid taking testosterone or any other androgen drug. Usually, these drugs are consumed for weight training.

How to prevent male infertility?

There isn’t much to be done to prevent male infertility that is caused by genetic disorders. But, there are certain ways to avoid the problem to some extent which includes:

  • Prevention from sexually transmitted diseases
  • No illicit drug usage
  • Avoid exposure to radiation
  • Limited use of alcohol
  • High personal hygiene practices
  • Loose-fitting undergarments

In case you experience the symptoms of male infertility or any discomfort while having sex, and not being able to conceive, you must consult the physician as soon as possible.

Advanced Urology Kidney Diseases

Kidney Stone Home Remedies – Tips to help with the discomfort & pain

With the rising rate of risk factors, one of the common diseases that has affected a lot of people is Kidney Stones. These stones are hard, a rock-like structure that forms inside the kidney when the malicious products do not completely drain out. The natural way of getting rid of these stones is passing them through urine. However, it is one of the most painful experiences. Also, the chances of their re-occurrence are also very high.

While kidney stone surgery is a great way to get rid of these stones permanently, you can always try some of the best home remedies to eliminate them in the first place. In this article, we have explained some of the proven kidney stone home remedies.

Drink plenty of water

Keeping yourself well hydrated is one of the best ways to get rid of kidney stones. This is not only care but also preventive measures from kidney stones. When you drink plenty of fluids, the water content in your body increases, which dilutes the stone forming contents. The body then releases the excess water, along with these contents, in the form of urine. While water along with beverages like coffee, tea, beer, wine, and orange juice is a great fluid to prevent kidney stones, soda and high carbonated drinks are considered contributing to the cause.

Add more citric acid to your diet

Citric acid works on calcium oxalate kidney stones. The two ways it is helpful are:

  • Avoid stone formation: Citric acid gets associated with the calcium in the urine and prevents the stone formation in the first place.
  • Reduce stone enlargement: In case you already have kidney stones, an increase in citric acid levels in the body means the excess calcium is being absorbed.

Some rich sources of citric acid are lemons, limes, oranges, and various other fruits and vegetables.

Limit oxalates intake

Oxalate, also known as Oxalic acid is found in various dietary items such as leafy greens, fruits, and vegetables. Our body also produces oxalate naturally. When the body gets richer with oxalate, they start showing in the urine. In case you tend to develop calcium oxalate stones, this can be an alarming condition for you.  However, before you avoid eating your leafy greens and vegetables, consult with your doctor first.

Limit your dose of Vitamin C

If you are taking vitamin D supplements you might be at a higher risk of developing kidney stones. This is because when you consume high Vitamin C supplement they trigger the production of oxalate in the urine. However, consuming Vitamin C rich food items does not cause any such problem.

Reduce your salt intake

Studies show that eating a diet high in salt can increase your risk of developing kidney stones. When you consume a lot of table salt, the sodium content in it works on your body resulting in calcium excretion in the urine.

Increase calcium intake

The more calcium-rich diet you will have, the lower are your chances of developing kidney stones. However, you must limit the intake of dietary calcium and increase the consumption of foods like milk, cheese and yogurt, and other good dietary sources of calcium. The recommended dose of calcium is 1000 mg per day.

Limit eating animal protein

Meat, fish, and dairy are a rich source of protein, but this animal protein is also associated with a higher rate of kidney stones. The animal protein can influence calcium excretion and have the opposite effects of citrate.

Make medicinal juices

There is a range of juices that act against the development of kidney stones. Some of the finest examples of such juices are Basil Juice, Lemon Juice, Apple Cider Vinegar Juice, Pomegranate juices, and more. These juices increase the fluid amount in your body and are also a rich source of citric acid.

Preventing and treating Kidney stones is possible. However, in case of a severe condition, it is important to consult the best surgeon for kidney stones first.


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