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Ovarian Cysts – Types, Causes & Treatment Options

Minimal Invasive Surgery Urinary Problems

Ovarian Cysts – Types, Causes & Treatment Options

An ovarian cyst is a health condition whereby the ovaries contain a fluid-like jelly. While multiple types of ovarian cysts exist, it is imperative to note that each type has a distinct cause. Some people do not realize that they have ovarian cysts, as they may not experience any symptoms. On the other hand, there exist people who may experience some slight symptoms like stomach bloating, pain in the lower back as well as the abdomen. Ovarian cysts are not usually harmful but it may be fatal and painful if the cyst opens up.

Types of ovarian cysts

  • Functional cysts: Exists as either follicular or corpus luteum cyst and grows as follicles on the ovaries. The ability of these follicles to release estrogen and progesterone hormones influences ovulation.
  • Dermoid cysts: This type of cyst develops from the embryonic cells and are hardly cancerous. They may contain tissue like skin or hair.
  • Cystadenomas: Cystadenomas develops on the surface of an ovary and has the potential of filling up with water or mucous-like fluid.
  • Endometriomas: Develop following the growth of uterine endometrial cells outside the uterus and causes some tissue to attach to the ovary, forming a growth.

Causes of ovarian cysts

There are multiple types of ovarian cysts, including the very common functional cysts that develop following the menstrual cycle. The name is owed to the fact that it normally forms on a monthly basis and exists as a follicular cyst or a corpus luteum cyst.

  • Hormonal problems: If a woman exhibits hormonal problems, then they are likely to develop ovarian cysts. These hormonal challenges include the consumption of Clomiphene, which is commonly referred to as the Clomid (a fertility drug) as a means to induce ovulation.
  • An acute infection in the pelvic: In the event that a woman has a serious pelvic infection, then it spreads to the ovaries, this person will most definitely develop ovarian cysts.
  • Endometriosis: This is a condition that results in the growth of the uterine endometrial cells outside the uterus. Potentially, some tissue will attach to the ovary, forming a growth.
  • Pregnancy: Upon ovulation and the formation of a cyst, this cyst is preserved by the conditions that come with being pregnant.

Treatment options

The intervention for treating ovarian cysts is dependent on the age of the patient, the type of cyst, its size, and the symptoms manifested.

  • Surgery: This approach is only applicable for a large cyst that is growing and progresses across the second and third menstrual cycles. This approach is also applicable if the cyst is causing pain.
  • Hormonal contraceptives: These include birth control pills meant to prevent the cysts from redeveloping. It is important to note that contraceptives do not reduce an existing cyst.
  • Watchful waiting: This approach is opted for as a means to establish whether the cyst disappears after some time. It applies to simple cysts that are small and fluid-filled.


The potential for cysts to recur if the individual has had a previous incident is significant.

Advanced Urology Urinary Problems

Urethral Stricture in Men & Women – Diagnosis & Treatment

The human body has a thin tube named Urethra that carries the urine out of the body from the bladder. In certain cases, this tube gets blocked due to the narrowing of the scar tissues. This obstructs the flow of the urine causing various other complications. The medical condition where scar tissue growth narrows the urethra is known as Urethral Stricture. Some of the common problems associated with Urethral Stricture include the backflow of the urine to the bladder as well as obstruction in urinating. Both conditions are complex and may lead to kidney failure.

What are the common causes of urethral stricture?

The manipulation of the urethra is one of the common reasons for the urethral stricture problem. The complication of the urethra can be a result of prostate brachytherapy, prostatectomy, damage caused by a urethral catheter, or a corrective measure taken for hypospadias.

However, there are certain inflammatory conditions as well that can cause urethral strictures. Such conditions include untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or a medical condition named balanitis xerotica obliterans.

Common symptoms of urethral stricture

Some of the common symptoms of the condition include:

  • Reoccurring Urinary tract infections
  • Increase in urine frequency
  • Bladder control loss
  • Painful urination
  • Swelling in the genitals
  • Long urinating duration
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Feeling full bladder after urinating

Urethral stricture in men and women

Usually, the urethral stricture is a problem experienced by males than females. However, both males and females can have a urethral stricture. Posterior urethral stricture and anterior urethral stricture are two types of urethral stricture found in men. In females, the chances of urethral stricture are limited to 2.7-8 percent only.

How is urethral stricture diagnosed?

When you approach your medical care provider, they will analyse your medical history and read the symptoms to get an idea of the condition. A physical exam will be conducted, which will help the doctors to suggest further diagnostic tests. Some diagnosis tools and tests used for identifying urethral stricture include:

  • Urethroscopy
  • Retrograde urethrogram
  • Imaging studies such as MRI scans, CT scans, and ultrasounds

Treatment for urethral stricture

Again a range of characteristics defines what would be the best treatment for urethral stricture. He doctor would check the cause of the condition, its symptoms, occurrence, and many other aspects. Some of the commonly recommended treatments for urethral stricture include dilation, urethrectomy, and open surgical removal.

  • Dilation: In this procedure, the doctor inserts a special device in the urethra, which works against the narrowing and gradually increases the stricture. It is a minimally invasive method and usually the initial phase of the treatment.
  • Urethrectomy: A special urethroscope is used for guidance, and the stricture is cut off manually using a laser beam.
  • Open surgical removal: Expert doctors surgically remove the stricture. It is an invasive method but shows a great success rate.


Advanced Urology Urinary Problems

Female Urinary Incontinence – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Female urinary incontinence is a medical condition in which females experience involuntary loss of urine. The condition ranges from mild to severe, wherein women either lose a few drops of urine while coughing or sneezing or may have a strong sudden urge to urinate, which is often uncontrollable. In certain women, both types of incontinence are observed. Incontinence causes great public discomfort as the notion of urinating in public is often embarrassing. Moreover, it can also happen while you are having sexual intercourse, which makes the condition even worse.

What are the different types of Female Urinary Incontinence?

Female Urinary Incontinence is primarily of 7 types and affects women of different ages and physical conditions. This includes:

  • Stress incontinence: Stress caused because of any physical activity such as coughing, sneezing, or exercising causes incontinence.
  • Urge incontinence: This is a condition when an urge to urinate is uncontrollable. Such women lose a large amount of urine, including during sleep.
  • Overactive bladder incontinence: Frequent urge topee or urge to urinate.
  • Functional incontinence: Several reasons such as physical disability, internal obstacle, and more contribute towards untimely urination.
  • Overflow incontinence: Full bladder results in leakage of small amounts of urine.
  • Mixed incontinence: A combination of stress and urge incontinence
  • Transient incontinence: A temporary problem with urination that passes out with time.

What are the common symptoms of female urinary incontinence?

The symptoms of different types of incontinence are different; however, in each case, one or other cause makes you lose urine involuntarily. The symptoms may range from the loss of a small amount of urine to large quantities.

What are the causes of female urinary incontinence?

Female Urinary Incontinence cannot be treated as a disease. It is but a condition that may be permanent or temporary. It is mostly a side-effect of any underlying physical or medical problem.

Causes of temporary incontinence

There are certain food and beverages that act as diuretics. These include:

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Sparkling water
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Chocolate
  • Chili peppers
  • Spicy, Sugary or acidy food
  • Heart and blood pressure medications, sedatives, and muscle relaxants
  • Large doses of vitamin C

Besides this, Urinary Tract Infection, as well as constipation, can also result in Female Urinary Incontinence.

Persistent urinary incontinence

These are often an outcome of an underlying medical or physical conditions. Such conditions comprise of Pregnancy, Childbirth, Changes with age, menopause, hysterectomy, obstruction, or neurological disorders.

How is female urinary incontinence diagnosed?

The doctors determine the type of incontinence with your symptoms. They will also examine your medical history as well as recommend some physical tests. The common diagnostic tests used are:

  • Urinalysis: A urine test is performed to check for any infection, traces of blood, and other abnormalities.
  • Bladder Diary: A log is maintained about the amount of water you drink, the amount of urine you pass, when you urinate, urge that you feel, and the incontinence episode that occurs in between.
  • Post-void Residual Treatment: This is a detailed test in which the patient is asked to urinate in a container. The amount of leftover urine in the bladder is checked by the doctor using a catheter or an ultrasound test.

What is the treatment of female urinary incontinence?

The doctors will advise you on the best decision as per your condition and symptoms. Commonly recommended treatment options for female urinary incontinence include:

  • Behavioral techniques
  • Medication
  • Medical devices
  • Interventional therapies
  • Surgery

Expert doctors suggest surgery as a reliable treatment for incontinence that is persistent and severe in nature. We are the best hospital to approach for female urinary incontinence. Our expert doctors have performed several successful surgeries. If you are dealing with an incontinence problem, connect with us.

Hernia Repair Minimal Invasive Surgery

Hernia Repair – Types and Treatments

The hernia is when fatty tissue or an organ squeezes through a weak spot or hole in the adjoining muscle or tissue.  When there is more pressure on an existing weak muscle or tissue, like obesity, heavy lifting, persistent coughing, constipation, etc., it pushes an organ or a tissue into the weak spot resulting in a hernia.

Hernia types

Based on the place of occurrence, the hernia is classified into the fullowing types

  • In the inner groin region referred to as inguinal
  • In the outer groin or upper thigh region called femoral
  • Incisional when it happens through an incision or a scar in the abdomen
  • Along the ventral wall or general abdominal region referred to as ventral
  • At the belly button called umbilical
  • Hiatal, when it happens along the diaphragm/ upper stomach region, inside the abdomen.

There are also three classifications of Hernia made based on the nature of hernia namely,

  • Reducible hernia where it can be pushed back into the original position.
  • Irreducible hernia where the organ cannot be pushed back.
  • Strangulated where the organ is completely stuck inside the hernia with no supply of blood.

Hernia repair types

The procedure in which the displaced tissues are placed again in their rightful position is called Hernia repair. It is a very common procedure done to deal with the hernia and is quite safe.

There are two types of Hernia repair surgeries performed,

  • Herniorrhaphy: The oldest method of surgery performed to remove a hernia; this method involves a long incision made on the spot of hernia directly after which a cut is made to access it. This is also referred to as tissue repair surgery for a hernia. The tissues and the organs are replaced in their original position, followed by the removal of the hernia sac. The opening in the muscle or tissue which caused the hernia to protrude is then stitched close to prevent further recurrence. The wound is then sterilized before stitching it closed.
  • Hernioplasty: This is referred to as the mesh repair, where the muscle opening causing the hernia is not shut but is rather covered with a sterile mesh. The mesh is either made of animal tissue or polypropylene or similar flexible plastics. Small cuts are made around the tissue with the hole, and the mesh is stitched onto the healthy tissues around the weak spot. This helps the weak tissues to grow with the mesh as a foundation to hold onto. This is also a repair that is classified as tension-free repair.

Both the above surgeries can be done laparoscopically. There are also open repair surgeries for hernia, predominantly done for inguinal, small, and infected or strangulated hernias.

Your surgeon might, however, want to watch the hernia and ensure that it doesn’t grow or cause problems based on which he/she might recommend a surgical procedure. Since hernias have higher chances of recurring, mesh repair is often suggested to strengthen the repair.

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